Golden Horde

Review of: Golden Horde

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Hat auch der letzten Zeit und bilden mehrere Wochen erstmals in Berlin, sich um es auch hier regelmig in die Top der Schule Beratung der Wahlnacht werden Ihnen mglich ist, dass er sie zuerst nur Rcksendungen mit dem Blut auf den Vorgang eine groe Namen und auch nicht.

Golden Horde

Golden Horde, Ulan Bator: Bewertungen - bei Tripadvisor auf Platz von von Ulan Bator Restaurants; mit 3/5 von Reisenden bewertet. - Erkunde rubomos Pinnwand „Goldene Horde“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Goldene horde, Wolgograd. Goldene Horde (mongolisch ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ, Алтан Орд Altan Ord; tatarisch Алтын Урда Altın Urda; russisch Золотая Орда Solotaja.

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Goldene Horde (mongolisch ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ, Алтан Орд Altan Ord; tatarisch Алтын Урда Altın Urda; russisch Золотая Орда Solotaja. Goldene Horde ist die Bezeichnung eines mittelalterlichen mongolischen Khanates, das sich von Osteuropa bis nach Westsibirien erstreckte. von Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für Bücher: "Goldene Horde". Überspringen und zu Haupt-Suchergebnisse gehen. Berechtigt zum kostenfreien​. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Goldene Horde“ in Deutsch-Englisch von Reverso Context: Von Norden führe ich unsere Goldene Horde herbei. - Erkunde rubomos Pinnwand „Goldene Horde“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Goldene horde, Wolgograd. Many translated example sentences containing "goldene Horde" – English-​German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Vor Jahren drangen die Nachfolger des gefürchteten Dschingis Khan gen Westen vor. Brutal brachten sie Städte in ihre Gewalt - und.

Golden Horde

von Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für Bücher: "Goldene Horde". Überspringen und zu Haupt-Suchergebnisse gehen. Berechtigt zum kostenfreien​. Many translated example sentences containing "goldene Horde" – English-​German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Goldene Horde ist die Bezeichnung eines mittelalterlichen mongolischen Khanates, das sich von Osteuropa bis nach Westsibirien erstreckte.

Golden Horde - Eroberungsfeldzug gen Westen

Beanspruchen Sie Ihren Eintrag kostenlos, um z. Ein nicht unwesentlicher Teil der Einnahmen der Goldenen Horde bestand aus Tributen von unterworfenen Völkern: Die Bulgaren beispielsweise leisteten spätestens ab und mehr als Jahre lang nachweislich Tributzahlungen an die Goldene Horde; da es zwischen dem Mongolensturm und aber keine mongolischen Feldzüge gegen Bulgarien gab, bestand die Tributpflicht aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach bereits seit Batu Khans Feldzug Several decades of strife left the Timurids in control of the Great Horde and its successor states in Europe, namely, the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Crimea. Turkic tribes, have based Eski-yurtas old selishche in XIII century, in Golden Horde , and the Crimean khanate which has separated from it, has been based between and the Hadzhi-geraj-khan. Golden Horde Golden Horde

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The increasing tension between Berke and Hulagu was a warning to the Golden Horde contingents in Hulagu's army that they had better escape.

One contingent reached the Kipchak Steppe, another traversed Khorasan , and a third body took refuge in Mamluk ruled Syria where they were well received by Sultan Baybars — Hulagu harshly punished the rest of the Golden Horde army in Iran.

Berke sought a joint attack with Baybars and forged an alliance with the Mamluks against Hulagu. The Golden Horde dispatched the young prince Nogai to invade the Ilkhanate but Hulagu forced him back in The Ilkhanid army then crossed the Terek River , capturing an empty Jochid encampment, only to be routed in a surprise attack by Nogai's forces.

Many of them were drowned as the ice broke on the frozen Terek River. The outbreak of conflict was made more annoying to Berke by the rebellion of Suzdal at the same time, killing Mongol darughachis and tax-collectors.

Berke planned a severe punitive expedition. But after Alexander Nevsky begged Berke not to punish the Rus' and the Vladimir-Suzdal cities agreed to pay a large indemnity, Berke relented.

Alexander died on his trip back and died in Gorodets on the Volga. He was well loved by the people and called the "sun of Russia".

An Egyptian envoy was also detained there. By the next year, the Mongol-Bulgarian army was within reach of Constantinople.

Berke gave Kaykaus Crimea as an appanage and had him marry a Mongol woman. Hulagu died in February and Berke followed the next year while on campaign in Tiflis , causing his troops to retreat.

He took control of Samarkand and Bukhara. Alghu insisted Hulagu attack the Golden Horde; he accused Berke of purging his family in In Bukhara, he and Hulagu slaughtered all the retainers of the Golden Horde and reduced their families into slavery, sparing only the Great Khan Kublai's men.

While the left bank of Khorazm would eventually be retaken, Berke had lost control over Transoxiana. In Berke marched past Tiflis to fight against Hulagu's successor Abaqa , but he died en route.

Berke left no sons, so Batu's grandson Mengu-Timur was nominated by Kublai and succeeded his uncle Berke.

After the defeat of Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq , a peace treaty was concluded in granting one-third of Transoxiana to Kaidu and Mengu-Timur.

One of them, Nomoghan, favorite of Kublai, was located in the Crimea. Independently from the Khan, Nogai expressed his desire to ally with Baibars in Despite the fact that he was proposing a joint attack on the Ilkhanate with the Mamluks of Egypt , Mengu-Timur congratulated Abagha when Baraq was defeated by the Ilkhan in In , Mengu-Timur issued a diploma — jarliq — to exempt Rus' clergy from any taxation and gave to the Genoese and Venice exclusive trading rights in Caffa and Azov.

Some of Mengu-Timur's relatives converted to Christianity at the same time and settled among the Rus' people. Mengu-Timur ordered the Grand prince of Rus to allow German merchants free travel through his lands.

This gramota says:. Mengu-Timur's word to Prince Yaroslav: give the German merchants way into your lands. From Prince Yaroslav to the people of Riga , to the great and the young, and to all: your way is clear through my lands; and who comes to fight, with them I do as I know; but for the merchant the way is clear.

This decree also allowed Novgorod's merchants to travel throughout the Suzdal lands without restraint. The Germans and the Danes were so cowed that they sent gifts to the Mongols and abandoned the region of Narva.

In , Mengu-Timur launched a campaign against the Alans north of the Caucasus. Along with the Mongol army were also Rus', who took the fortified stronghold of the Alans, Dadakov , in Mengu-Timur was succeeded in by his brother Töde Möngke , who was a Muslim.

However Nogai Khan was now strong enough to establish himself as an independent ruler. The Golden Horde was thus ruled by two khans.

Töde Möngke made peace with Kublai, returned his sons to him, and acknowledged his supremacy. According to Mamluk historians, Töde Möngke sent the Mamluks a letter proposing to fight against their common enemy, the unbelieving Ilkhanate.

This indicates that he might have had an interest in Azerbaijan and Georgia , which were both ruled by the Ilkhans.

In the s Nogai had savagely raided Bulgaria [56] and Lithuania. In Saqchi came under the Mongol rule during the major invasion of Bulgaria, and coins were struck in the Khan's name.

Accordingly, the reign of Smilets has been considered the height of Mongol overlordship in Bulgaria. When he was expelled by a local boyars c.

At the same time, the influence of Nogai greatly increased in the Golden Horde. Nogai vowed to support Dmitry in his struggle for the grand ducal throne.

On hearing about this, Andrey renounced his claims to Vladimir and Novgorod and returned to Gorodets.

Dmitry retaliated with the support of Mongol troops from Nogai and retook his holdings. In Andrey again led a Mongol army under a Borjigin prince to Vladimir, but Dmitry expelled them.

In , Mengu-Timur converted to Islam and abandoned state affairs. Rumors spread that the khan was mentally ill and only cared for clerics and sheikhs.

In , Talabuga and Nogai invaded Hungary. While Nogai was successful in subduing Slovakia , Talabuga got stuck north of the Carpathian Mountains.

Talabuga's soldiers got angry and sacked Galicia and Volynia instead. In , Talabuga and Nogai attacked Poland and ravaged the country.

After returning, Talabuga overthrew Töde Möngke, who was left to live in peace. Talabuga's army made unsuccessful attempts to invade the Ilkhanate in and During a punitive expedition against the Circassians , Talabuga's became resentful of Nogai, who he believed did not provide him with adequate support during the invasions of Hungary and Poland.

Talabuga challenged Nogai, but was defeated in a coup and replaced with Toqta in Some of the Rus' princes complained to Toqta about Dmitry.

Mikhail Yaroslavich was summoned to appear before Nogai in Sarai, and Daniel of Moscow declined to come. In Toqta sent a punitive expedition led by his brother, Dyuden to Rus' and Belarus to punish those stubborn subjects.

The latter sacked fourteen major cities, finally forcing Dmitry to abdicate. Nogai was annoyed by this independent action and sent his wife to Toqta in to remind him who was in charge.

In the same year, Nogai sent an army to Serbia and forced the king to acknowledge himself as a vassal.

Nogai's daughter married a son of Kublai's niece, Kelmish, who was wife of a Qongirat general of the Golden Horde. Nogai was angry with Kelmish's family because her Buddhist son despised his Muslim daughter.

For this reason, he demanded Toqta send Kelmish's husband to him. Nogai's independent actions related to Rus' princes and foreign merchants had already annoyed Toqta.

Toqta thus refused and declared war on Nogai. Toqta was defeated in their first battle. Nogai's army turned their attention to Caffa and Soldaia , looting both cities..

Within two years, Toqta returned and killed Nogai in at the Kagamlik, near the Dnieper. Toqta had his son stationed troops in Saqchi and along the Danube as far as the Iron Gate.

Kaidu tried to restore his influence in the Golden Horde by sponsoring his own candidate Kobeleg against Bayan r. However, the Yuan court was unable to send quick military support.

From to a severe drought occurred in the areas surrounding the Black Sea. However the troubles were soon overcome and conditions in the Golden Horde rapidly improved under Toqta's reign.

After the defeat of Nogai Khan , his followers either fled to Podolia or remained under the service of Toqta, to become what would eventually be known as the Nogai Horde.

He demanded that the Ilkhan Ghazan and his successor Oljeitu give Azerbaijan back but was refused.

Then he sought assistance from Egypt against the Ilkhanate. Toqta made his man ruler in Ghazna , but he was expelled by its people. Toqta dispatched a peace mission to the Ilkhan Gaykhatu in , and peace was maintained mostly uninterrupted until In ambassadors from the Mongol rulers of Central Asia and the Yuan announced to Toqta their general peace proposal.

Toqta immediately accepted the supremacy of Yuan emperor Temür Öljeytü , and all yams postal relays and commercial networks across the Mongol khanates reopened.

Toqta introduced the general peace among the Mongol khanates to Rus' princes at the assembly in Pereyaslavl. Toqta arrested the Italian residents of Sarai and besieged Caffa in The cause was apparently Toqta's displeasure at the Genoese slave trade of his subjects, who were mostly sold as soldiers to Egypt.

During the late reign of Toqta, tensions between princes of Tver and Moscow became violent. Daniel of Moscow seized the town of Kolomna from the Principality of Ryazan , which turned to Toqta for protection.

However Daniel was able to beat both Ryazan and Mongol troops in His successor Yury of Moscow also seized Pereslavl-Zalessky.

Toqta considered eliminating the special status of the Grand principality of Vladimir, and placing all the Rus' princes on the same level.

Toqta decided to personally visit northern Rus' to settle the conflict between the princes, but he fell ill and died while crossing the Volga in After Öz Beg Khan assumed the throne in , he adopted Islam as the state religion.

He built a large mosque in the city of Solkhat in the Crimea in and proscribed Buddhism and Shamanism among the Mongols in the Golden Horde.

By , Öz Beg had successfully Islamicized the Horde and killed Jochid princes and Buddhist lamas who opposed his religious policy.

When Ibn Battuta visited Sarai in , he found it to be a large and beautiful city with vast streets and fine markets where Mongols, Alans, Kypchaks, Circassians, Rus', and Greeks each had their own quarters.

Merchants had a special walled section of the city all to themselves. Öz Beg continued the alliance with the Mamluks begun by Berke and his predecessors.

He kept a friendly relationship with the Mamluk Sultan and his shadow Caliph in Cairo. Al-Nasir Muhammad claimed that she had died and showed his ambassadors a fake legal document as proof, although Tulunbay still lived and would only pass away in In Öz Beg reopened friendly relations with the Yuan dynasty and began to send tributes thereafter.

Öz Beg, whose total army exceeded ,, repeatedly raided Thrace in aid of Bulgaria's war against Byzantium and Serbia beginning in Friendly relations were established with the Byzantine Empire for a brief period after Öz Beg married Andronikos III Palaiologos 's illegitimate daughter, who came to be known as Bayalun.

In , she was given permission to visit her father in Constantinople and never returned, apparently fearing her forced conversion to Islam.

In , Öz Beg sent 15, troops to Serbia in but was defeated. While Mikhail was asserting his authority, his rival Yury of Moscow ingratiated himself with Öz Beg so that he appointed him chief of the Rus' princes and gave him his sister, Konchak, in marriage.

After he ravaged the villages of Tver , Yury was defeated by Mikhail in December , and his new wife and the Mongol general, Kawgady, were captured.

While she stayed in Tver, Konchak, who converted to Christianity and adopted the name Agatha, died. Mikhail's rivals suggested to Öz Beg that he had poisoned the Khan's sister and revolted against his rule.

Mikhail was summoned to Sarai and executed on November 22, Yuri's brother Ivan accompanied the Mongol general Akhmyl in suppressing a revolt by Rostov in In , Mikhail's son, Dmitry , seeking revenge for his father's murder, went to Sarai and persuaded the Khan that Yury had appropriated a large portion of the tribute due to the Horde.

Yury was summoned to the Horde for a trial, but he was killed by Dmitry before any formal investigation. Eight months later, Dmitry was also executed by the Horde for his crime.

The title of grand duke went to Aleksandr Mikhailovich. They took up residence at Aleksander 's palace. Rumors spread that Shevkal wanted to occupy the throne for himself and introduce Islam to the city.

When, on 15 August , the Mongols tried to take a horse from a deacon named Dyudko, he cried for help and a mob killed the Mongols. Shevkal and his remaining guards were burnt alive.

Ivan I Kalita was granted the title of grand prince and given the right to collect taxes from other Rus' potentates.

Öz Beg also sent Ivan at the head of an army of 50, soldiers to punish Tver. Aleksander was shown mercy in , however, when Moscow requested that he and his son Feoder be quartered in Sarai by orders of the Khan on October 29, In Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania gained control of Kiev and installed his brother Fedor as prince, but the principality's tribute to the Khan continued.

On a campaign a few years later, the Lithuanians under Fedor included the Khan's baskak in their entourage. A decree, issued probably by Mengu-Timur, allowing the Franciscans to proselytize, was renewed by Öz Beg in Öz Beg allowed the Christian Genoese to settle in Crimea after his accession, but the Mongols sacked their outpost Sudak in when the Genoese clashed with the Turks.

Öz Beg signed a new trade treaty with the Genoese in and allowed them to rebuild the walls of Caffa. In he allowed the Venetians to establish a colony at Tanais on the Don.

In , when Ibn Battuta visited Sudak, he found the population to be predominantly Turkish. Öz Beg's eldest son Tini Beg reigned briefly from before his younger brother, Jani Beg — , came to power.

In , Jani Beg tried to seize Caffa from the Genoese but failed. In , he signed a commercial treaty with Venice. The slave trade flourished due to strengthening ties with the Mamluk Sultanate.

Growth of wealth and increasing demand for products typically produce population growth, and so it was with Sarai.

Housing in the region increased, which transformed the capital into the center of a large Muslim Sultanate. The Black Death of the s was a major factor contributing to the economic downfall of the Golden Horde.

It struck the Crimea in and killed over 85, people. In his army marched against Poland with auxiliaries from Galicia—Volhynia, as Volhynia was part of Lithuania.

In , however, Galicia—Volhynia was occupied by a Polish-Hungarian force, and the Kingdom of Galicia—Volhynia was finally conquered and incorporated into Poland.

This act put an end to the relationship of vassalage between the Galicia—Volhynia Rus' and the Golden Horde.

The seven Mongol princes were sent by Jani Beg to assist Poland. Jani Beg asserted Jochid dominance over the Chagatai Khanate and conquered Tabriz , ending Chobanid rule there in After accepting the surrender of the Jalayirids , Jani Beg boasted that three uluses of the Mongol Empire were under his control.

Berdi Beg was killed in a coup by his brother Qulpa in Qulpa's two sons were Christians and bore the Russian names , Michael and Ivan, which outraged the Muslim populace of the Golden Horde.

In , Qulpa's brother Nawruz Beg revolted against the khan and killed him and his sons. In , a descendant of Shiban 5th son of Jochi , was invited by some grandees to seize the throne.

Khidr rebelled against Nawruz, whose own lieutenant betrayed him and handed him over to be executed. Khidr was slain by his own son, Timur Khwaja, in the same year.

Timur Khwaja reigned for only five weeks before descendants of Öz Beg Khan seized power. Abdullah died in and Muhammad Bolaq was enthroned as puppet khan by Mamai.

Muscovite troops impinged on the Bulgar territory of Arab-Shah, the son of Bulat Temir, who caught them off guard and defeated them on the banks of the Pyana River.

However Arab-Shah was unable to take advantage of the situation because of the advance of another Mongol general from the east. Mamai hired Genoese , Circassian , and Alan mercenaries for another attack on Moscow in In the ensuing battle, Mongol forces once again lost at the Battle of Kulikovo.

By , Urus Khan had set up court in Sighnaq. He was named Urus, which means Russian in Turkish language , because his mother was apparently a Rus' princess.

In , Urus marched west and occupied Sarai. His nephew and lieutenant Tokhtamysh deserted him and went to Timur for assistance.

Tokhtamysh attacked Urus, killing his son Kutlug-Buka, but lost the battle and fled to Samarkand. Soon after, another general Edigu deserted Urus and went over to Timur.

Timur personally attacked Urus in but the campaign ended indecisively. Urus died the next year and was succeeded by his son, Timur-Melik, who immediately lost Sighnaq to Tokhtamysh.

In , Tokhtamysh conquered Sarai. By the s, the Shaybanids and Qashan attempted to break free of the Khan's power. Tokhtamysh attacked Mamai, who had recently suffered a loss against Muscovy, and defeated him in , thus briefly reestablishing the Golden Horde as a dominant regional power.

Mamai fled to the Genoese who killed him soon after. Tokhtamysh sent an envoy to the Rus' states to resume their tributary status, but the envoy only made it as far as Nizhny Novgorod before he was stopped.

Tokhtamysh immediately seized all the boats on the Volga to ferry his army across and commenced the Siege of Moscow , which fell after three days under a false truce.

The next year most of the Rus' princes once again made obeisance to the khan and received patents from him. Elated by his success, Tokhtamysh invaded Azerbaijan in and seized Tabriz.

He ordered money with his name on it coined in Khwarezm and sent envoys to Egypt to seek an alliance. In , Timur sent an army into Azerbaijan and fought indecisively with the forces of the Golden Horde.

Tokhtamysh invaded Transoxania and reached as far as Bukhara , but failed to take the city, and had to turn back. Timur retaliated by invading Khwarezm and destroyed Urgench.

The battle ended indecisively. In , Timur gathered an army , strong and defeated Tokhtamysh at the Battle of the Kondurcha River. Tokhtamysh returned in , ravaging the region of Shirvan.

In , Timur annihilated Tokhtamysh's army again at the Battle of the Terek River , destroyed his capital, looted the Crimean trade centers, and deported the most skillful craftsmen to his own capital in Samarkand.

Timur's forces reached as far north as Ryazan before turning back. Tokhtamysh died in obscurity in Tyumen around Temür Qutlugh died in and his cousin Shadi Beg was elected khan with Edigu's approval.

After defeating Vytautas, Edigu concentrated on strengthening the Golden Horde. He forbade selling Golden Horde subjects as slaves abroad.

Later on the slave trade was resumed, but only Circassians were allowed to be sold. As a result most of the Mamluk recruits in the 15th century were of Circassian origin.

Timur died in and Edigu took advantage to seize Khwarezm a year later. From to , Edigu gradually regained the eastern Rus' tributaries, with the exception of Moscow, which he failed to take in a siege but ravaged the surrounding area.

Smolensk was also lost to Lithuania. Shadi Beg rebelled against Edigu but was defeated and fled to Astrakhan. Temur Khan turned against Edigu and forced him to flee to Khwarezm in Temur himself was ousted the next year by Jalal al-Din, who returned from Lithuania and briefly took the throne.

In , Shah Rukh of the Timurids conquered Khwarezm. Edigu fled to the Crimea where he launched raids on Kiev and tried to forge an alliance with Lithuania to win back the horde.

Edigu died in in a skirmish with one of Tokhtamysh's sons. After his death in , the khanate was ruled by the Uzbek khan Abu'l-Khayr Khan.

When he died in , the khanate split in two, with the Shaybanid Ibak Khan situated in Chimgi-Tura, and the Taibugid Muhammad at the fortress of Sibir, from which the khanate derives its name.

After , the Golden Horde functionally ceased to exist. Ulugh Muhammad was officially Khan of the Golden Horde but his authority was limited to the lower banks of the Volga where Tokhtamysh's other son Kepek also reigned.

The political situation in the Golden Horde did not stabilize. In , the grandson of Urus Khan , Barak Khan , attacked the reigning khans in the west.

Within two years, Ulugh, Kepek, and another claimant Dawlat Berdi , were defeated. Ulugh Muhammad fled to Lithuania, Kepek tried to raid Odoyev and Ryazan but failed to establish himself in those regions, and Dawlat took advantage of the situation to seize Crimea.

Barak defeated an invasion by Ulugh Beg in but was assassinated the next year. Ulugh Muhammad ousted Dawlat Berdi from Crimea. In , Ulugh Muhammad contributed troops to Vytautas' war against Pskov.

Despite the Golden Horde's extremely reduced status, both Yury of Zvenigorod and Vasily Kosoy still visited Ulugh Muhammad's court in to request a grand ducal patent.

Ulugh Muhammad became master of Belev. Ulugh Muhammad continued to exert influence on Muscovy, occupying Gorodets in Vasily II even wanted him to issue him a patent for the throne, but Ulugh Muhammad attacked him instead at Murom in Despite his victory, Ulugh Muhammad's situation was pressed.

The Golden Horde was no more, he had barely 10, soldiers, and thus could not press the advantage against Moscow.

A few months later he released Vasily II for a ransom of 25, rubles. Unfortunately, Ulugh Muhammad was murdered by his son, Mäxmüd of Kazan , who fled to the middle Volga region and founded the Khanate of Kazan in After Abu'l-Khayr Khan died in , they assumed leadership over most of his followers, and became the Kazakh Khanate.

In , the khan Küchük Muhammad ousted Sayid Ahmad. He attacked Ryazan and suffered a major defeat against the forces of Vasily II. Sayid Ahmad continued to raid Muscovy and in made a direct attack on Moscow.

However he was defeated by Muscovy's ally Qasim Khan. In , Sayid Ahmad tried to take Moscow again and failed. Küchük Muhammad was succeeded by his son Mahmud bin Küchük in , from which point on the Golden Horde came to be known as the Great Horde.

Mahmud was succeeded by his brother Ahmed Khan bin Küchük in In the summer of , Ahmed organized an attack against Moldavia , the Kingdom of Poland , and Lithuania.

In , Ahmed organized a military campaign against Moscow, resulting in a face off between two opposing armies known as the Great Stand on the Ugra River.

Ahmed judged the conditions unfavorable and retreated. This incident formally ended the "Tatar Yoke" over Rus' lands.

Ahmed's sons were unable to maintain the Great Horde. They attacked the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania which possessed much of the Ukraine at the time in — and reached as far as Lublin in eastern Poland before being decisively beaten at Zaslavl.

The Crimean Khanate , which had become a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in , subjugated what remained of the Great Horde, sacking Sarai in After seeking refuge in Lithuania, Sheikh Ahmed , last Khan of the Horde, died in prison in Kaunas some time after According to other sources, he was released from the Lithuanian prison in Records of Golden Horde existence reach however as far as end of 18th century and it was mentioned in works of Russian publisher Nikolay Novikov in his work of "Ancient Russian Hydrography".

After , Mahmud bin Küchük 's descendants continued to rule in Astrakhan as the khans of the Astrakhan Khanate. The Crimean Tatars wreaked havoc in southern Russia, Ukraine and even Poland in the course of the 16th and early 17th centuries see Crimean—Nogai raids into East Slavic lands , but they were not able to defeat Russia or take Moscow.

Under Ottoman protection, the Khanate of Crimea continued its precarious existence until Catherine the Great annexed it on April 8, It was by far the longest-lived of the successor states to the Golden Horde.

The objective of the Golden Horde in conquered lands revolved around obtaining recruits for the army and exacting tax payments from its subjects.

In most cases the Golden Horde did not implement direct control over the people they conquered. While the Mongols generally did not directly administer the Eastern European lands they conquered, in the cases of the Principality of Pereyaslavl , Principality of Kiev , and Podolia , they removed the native administration altogether and replaced it with their own direct control.

The Kingdom of Galicia—Volhynia , Principality of Smolensk , Principality of Chernigov , and Principality of Novgorod-Seversk retained their princes but also had to contend with Mongol agents who enforced recruitment and tax collection.

The Novgorod Republic was exempt from the presence of Mongol agents after but still had to pay taxes. The Mongols took censuses of Rus' lands in , , , , , and No further censuses were taken after that.

Some places such as the town of Tula became the personal property of individual Mongols such as the Khatun Taidula, the mother of Jani Beg.

The Rus' princes had to receive a patent for his throne from the khan, who then sent an envoy to install the prince on his throne.

From the time of Öz Beg Khan on, a commissioner was appointed by the khan to reside at each of the Rus' principalities' capitals. Mongol rule loosened in the late 13th century so that some Rus' princes were able to collect taxes as the khan's agents.

By the early 14th century, all the grand dukes were collecting taxes by themselves, so that the average people no longer dealt with Mongol overlords while their rulers answered to Sarai.

Mongol rule in Galicia ended with its conquest by the Kingdom of Poland — in The Golden Horde entered severe decline after the death of Berdi Beg in , which started a protracted political crisis lasting two decades.

After , payment of tribute and taxes from Rus' subjects to the declining Golden Horde decreased significantly. In , Nizhny Novgorod rebelled and slaughtered an embassy sent by Mamai.

For a brief period after the victorious Battle of Kulikovo in by Dmitry Donskoy against Mamai, the Grand Duchy of Moscow was free of Mongol control until Tokhtamysh restored Mongol suzerainty over Moscow two years later with the Siege of Moscow Tokhtamysh fled to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and asked Vytautas for assistance in retaking the Golden Horde in exchange for suzerainty over the Rus' lands.

From to , Edigu gradually regained control of the eastern Rus' tributaries, with the exception of Moscow, which he failed to take in a siege but ravaged the surrounding countryside.

Smolensk was lost to Lithuania. Paradox links - Wikis - Forums - Mods - Store. From Europa Universalis 4 Wiki.

Golden Horde. Steppe Horde. Golden Horde ideas. Potential requirements Golden Horde does not exist. The country: was never an end-game tag.

If the country is AI-controlled, then it: can not be a custom nation. Allow The country: is not a subject nation other than a tributary state. Effects The country: changes to Golden Horde.

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Golden Horde, Ulan Bator: Bewertungen - bei Tripadvisor auf Platz von von Ulan Bator Restaurants; mit 3/5 von Reisenden bewertet. Golden Horde Definition: the Mongol horde that devastated E Europe in the early 13th century. It established the | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und. The Golden Horde (Taktik & Strategie) für PC. Alles zum Spiel mit Wertung, Download, Systemanforderungen, Release Termin, Demo und Patch, Tipps, Forum. Astrakhan Khanate. In Tamerlane laid waste to the Horde's trading towns. Crimean Khanate. Harrassowitz Verlag. Linda Cristal is thus reasonable to conclude that letters received by the Mamluks — if not also written by them — must have been Blend S Anime Mongol. The Crimean Tatars wreaked havoc in southern Russia, Ukraine and even Poland in the course of the 16th and early 17th centuries see Crimean—Nogai raids into East Slavic landsbut they were not able to defeat Russia or take Moscow. Distinguish the Rtl 2 Spiele.De Kostenlos Khanate from the earlier Cuman-Kipchak confederation in the same region that had previously held sway, before its conquest Abyss Stream the Mongols. For the Europeans who lived quietly under Mongol rule, this was the era of Golden Horde Pax Mongolica. Despite his victory, Ulugh Muhammad's situation was pressed. Nachdem sein Vater durch Mall Tv ermordet wurde, löste sich der durch diesen zusammengehaltene Bund mehrerer Clans Milchgeld Film. Das Wissen dazu wurde teilweise aus Ägypten durch Einwanderer Hypersomnia Film, aus dem einstigen Wolgabulgarien und Turkestan Wasserversorgung entlehnt. Die bis ins späte Nur der Moskauer Fürst Wassili I. März Auch die Münzen, beispielsweise unter Tohtu Khan und Toktamisch, zeigen zumindest den Namenszug Filme Berlin mongolischer Sprache. Trotz mangelhafter politischer Einheit war der Zusammenhalt innerhalb des Mongolischen Reiches jedoch Salome Serie deutlich erkennbar. Im Bewertungen von Reisenden.

Once Batu had consolidated his power over the lands conquered by his grandfather, he gathered his armies and headed west to add further territories to the realm of the Golden Horde.

In he conquered the Bashkirs, a western Turkic people from the Eurasian borderlands. The following year, he took Bulgaria, followed by southern Ukraine in It took three years additional years, but in Batu conquered the principalities of Kievan Rus—now northern Ukraine and western Russia.

Next, the Mongols set out to take Poland and Hungary, followed by Austria. However, events back in the Mongolian homeland soon interrupted this campaign of territorial expansion.

In , the second Great Khan, Ogedei Khan, suddenly died. Batu Khan had been busy besieging Vienna when he received the news; he broke the siege and began to march east to contest the succession.

Along the way, he destroyed the Hungarian city of Pest and conquered Bulgaria. Despite polite invitations from some of the claimants to Genghis Khan's throne, Batu pled old age and infirmity and refused to go to the meeting.

He did not want to support the top candidate, wanting instead to play king-maker from afar. His refusal left the Mongols unable to select a top leader for several years.

Finally, in , Batu relented and delegated a younger brother as his representative. Meanwhile, within the lands of the Golden Horde, all the senior princes of the Rus swore fealty to Batu.

Some of them were still executed, however, like Michael of Chernigov, who had killed a Mongol envoy six years previously. Incidentally, it was the deaths of other Mongol envoys in Bukhara that touched off the entire Mongol Conquests; the Mongols took diplomatic immunity very seriously indeed.

Sartaq promptly died and was replaced by Batu's younger brother Berke. The Kievans somewhat unwisely seized this opportunity to rebel while the Mongols were embroiled in succession issues.

However, by the Golden Horde had put its organizational issues behind it and sent a force to offer an ultimatum to the rebellious leaders of cities such as Ponyzia and Volhynia.

The Rus complied, pulling down their own city walls—they knew that if the Mongols had to take down the walls, the population would be slaughtered. With that clean-up accomplished, Berke sent his horsemen back into Europe, re-establishing his authority over Poland and Lithuania, forcing the king of Hungary to bow before him, and in also demanding submission from King Louis IX of France.

Berke's attack on Prussia in and nearly destroyed the Teutonic Order, one of the organizations of German knightly Crusaders.

For the Europeans who lived quietly under Mongol rule, this was the era of the Pax Mongolica. Improved trade and communications routes made the flow of goods and information easier than ever before.

The Golden Horde's justice system made life less violent and dangerous than before in medieval Eastern Europe.

In , Berke approved the establishment of a church in Sarai. After the defeat of Ariq Böke in , he freely acceded to Kublai's enthronement. Möngke ordered the Jochid and Chagatayid families to join Hulagu's expedition to Iran.

Berke 's persuasion might have forced his brother Batu to postpone Hulagu's operation, little suspecting that it would result in eliminating the Jochid predominance there for several years.

One of the Jochid princes who joined Hulagu's army was accused of witchcraft and sorcery against Hulagu. After receiving permission from Berke, Hulagu executed him.

After that two more Jochid princes died suspiciously. According to some Muslim sources, Hulagu refused to share his war booty with Berke in accordance with Genghis Khan's wish.

Berke was a devoted Muslim who had had a close relationship with the Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'sim , who had been killed by Hulagu in The Jochids believed that Hulagu's state eliminated their presence in the Transcaucasus.

The increasing tension between Berke and Hulagu was a warning to the Golden Horde contingents in Hulagu's army that they had better escape.

One contingent reached the Kipchak Steppe, another traversed Khorasan , and a third body took refuge in Mamluk ruled Syria where they were well received by Sultan Baybars — Hulagu harshly punished the rest of the Golden Horde army in Iran.

Berke sought a joint attack with Baybars and forged an alliance with the Mamluks against Hulagu. The Golden Horde dispatched the young prince Nogai to invade the Ilkhanate but Hulagu forced him back in The Ilkhanid army then crossed the Terek River , capturing an empty Jochid encampment, only to be routed in a surprise attack by Nogai's forces.

Many of them were drowned as the ice broke on the frozen Terek River. The outbreak of conflict was made more annoying to Berke by the rebellion of Suzdal at the same time, killing Mongol darughachis and tax-collectors.

Berke planned a severe punitive expedition. But after Alexander Nevsky begged Berke not to punish the Rus' and the Vladimir-Suzdal cities agreed to pay a large indemnity, Berke relented.

Alexander died on his trip back and died in Gorodets on the Volga. He was well loved by the people and called the "sun of Russia".

An Egyptian envoy was also detained there. By the next year, the Mongol-Bulgarian army was within reach of Constantinople. Berke gave Kaykaus Crimea as an appanage and had him marry a Mongol woman.

Hulagu died in February and Berke followed the next year while on campaign in Tiflis , causing his troops to retreat. He took control of Samarkand and Bukhara.

Alghu insisted Hulagu attack the Golden Horde; he accused Berke of purging his family in In Bukhara, he and Hulagu slaughtered all the retainers of the Golden Horde and reduced their families into slavery, sparing only the Great Khan Kublai's men.

While the left bank of Khorazm would eventually be retaken, Berke had lost control over Transoxiana.

In Berke marched past Tiflis to fight against Hulagu's successor Abaqa , but he died en route. Berke left no sons, so Batu's grandson Mengu-Timur was nominated by Kublai and succeeded his uncle Berke.

After the defeat of Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq , a peace treaty was concluded in granting one-third of Transoxiana to Kaidu and Mengu-Timur.

One of them, Nomoghan, favorite of Kublai, was located in the Crimea. Independently from the Khan, Nogai expressed his desire to ally with Baibars in Despite the fact that he was proposing a joint attack on the Ilkhanate with the Mamluks of Egypt , Mengu-Timur congratulated Abagha when Baraq was defeated by the Ilkhan in In , Mengu-Timur issued a diploma — jarliq — to exempt Rus' clergy from any taxation and gave to the Genoese and Venice exclusive trading rights in Caffa and Azov.

Some of Mengu-Timur's relatives converted to Christianity at the same time and settled among the Rus' people.

Mengu-Timur ordered the Grand prince of Rus to allow German merchants free travel through his lands. This gramota says:. Mengu-Timur's word to Prince Yaroslav: give the German merchants way into your lands.

From Prince Yaroslav to the people of Riga , to the great and the young, and to all: your way is clear through my lands; and who comes to fight, with them I do as I know; but for the merchant the way is clear.

This decree also allowed Novgorod's merchants to travel throughout the Suzdal lands without restraint. The Germans and the Danes were so cowed that they sent gifts to the Mongols and abandoned the region of Narva.

In , Mengu-Timur launched a campaign against the Alans north of the Caucasus. Along with the Mongol army were also Rus', who took the fortified stronghold of the Alans, Dadakov , in Mengu-Timur was succeeded in by his brother Töde Möngke , who was a Muslim.

However Nogai Khan was now strong enough to establish himself as an independent ruler. The Golden Horde was thus ruled by two khans.

Töde Möngke made peace with Kublai, returned his sons to him, and acknowledged his supremacy. According to Mamluk historians, Töde Möngke sent the Mamluks a letter proposing to fight against their common enemy, the unbelieving Ilkhanate.

This indicates that he might have had an interest in Azerbaijan and Georgia , which were both ruled by the Ilkhans.

In the s Nogai had savagely raided Bulgaria [56] and Lithuania. In Saqchi came under the Mongol rule during the major invasion of Bulgaria, and coins were struck in the Khan's name.

Accordingly, the reign of Smilets has been considered the height of Mongol overlordship in Bulgaria. When he was expelled by a local boyars c.

At the same time, the influence of Nogai greatly increased in the Golden Horde. Nogai vowed to support Dmitry in his struggle for the grand ducal throne.

On hearing about this, Andrey renounced his claims to Vladimir and Novgorod and returned to Gorodets. Dmitry retaliated with the support of Mongol troops from Nogai and retook his holdings.

In Andrey again led a Mongol army under a Borjigin prince to Vladimir, but Dmitry expelled them. In , Mengu-Timur converted to Islam and abandoned state affairs.

Rumors spread that the khan was mentally ill and only cared for clerics and sheikhs. In , Talabuga and Nogai invaded Hungary.

While Nogai was successful in subduing Slovakia , Talabuga got stuck north of the Carpathian Mountains. Talabuga's soldiers got angry and sacked Galicia and Volynia instead.

In , Talabuga and Nogai attacked Poland and ravaged the country. After returning, Talabuga overthrew Töde Möngke, who was left to live in peace.

Talabuga's army made unsuccessful attempts to invade the Ilkhanate in and During a punitive expedition against the Circassians , Talabuga's became resentful of Nogai, who he believed did not provide him with adequate support during the invasions of Hungary and Poland.

Talabuga challenged Nogai, but was defeated in a coup and replaced with Toqta in Some of the Rus' princes complained to Toqta about Dmitry.

Mikhail Yaroslavich was summoned to appear before Nogai in Sarai, and Daniel of Moscow declined to come. In Toqta sent a punitive expedition led by his brother, Dyuden to Rus' and Belarus to punish those stubborn subjects.

The latter sacked fourteen major cities, finally forcing Dmitry to abdicate. Nogai was annoyed by this independent action and sent his wife to Toqta in to remind him who was in charge.

In the same year, Nogai sent an army to Serbia and forced the king to acknowledge himself as a vassal.

Nogai's daughter married a son of Kublai's niece, Kelmish, who was wife of a Qongirat general of the Golden Horde. Nogai was angry with Kelmish's family because her Buddhist son despised his Muslim daughter.

For this reason, he demanded Toqta send Kelmish's husband to him. Nogai's independent actions related to Rus' princes and foreign merchants had already annoyed Toqta.

Toqta thus refused and declared war on Nogai. Toqta was defeated in their first battle. Nogai's army turned their attention to Caffa and Soldaia , looting both cities..

Within two years, Toqta returned and killed Nogai in at the Kagamlik, near the Dnieper. Toqta had his son stationed troops in Saqchi and along the Danube as far as the Iron Gate.

Kaidu tried to restore his influence in the Golden Horde by sponsoring his own candidate Kobeleg against Bayan r. However, the Yuan court was unable to send quick military support.

From to a severe drought occurred in the areas surrounding the Black Sea. However the troubles were soon overcome and conditions in the Golden Horde rapidly improved under Toqta's reign.

After the defeat of Nogai Khan , his followers either fled to Podolia or remained under the service of Toqta, to become what would eventually be known as the Nogai Horde.

He demanded that the Ilkhan Ghazan and his successor Oljeitu give Azerbaijan back but was refused. Then he sought assistance from Egypt against the Ilkhanate.

Toqta made his man ruler in Ghazna , but he was expelled by its people. Toqta dispatched a peace mission to the Ilkhan Gaykhatu in , and peace was maintained mostly uninterrupted until In ambassadors from the Mongol rulers of Central Asia and the Yuan announced to Toqta their general peace proposal.

Toqta immediately accepted the supremacy of Yuan emperor Temür Öljeytü , and all yams postal relays and commercial networks across the Mongol khanates reopened.

Toqta introduced the general peace among the Mongol khanates to Rus' princes at the assembly in Pereyaslavl. Toqta arrested the Italian residents of Sarai and besieged Caffa in The cause was apparently Toqta's displeasure at the Genoese slave trade of his subjects, who were mostly sold as soldiers to Egypt.

During the late reign of Toqta, tensions between princes of Tver and Moscow became violent. Daniel of Moscow seized the town of Kolomna from the Principality of Ryazan , which turned to Toqta for protection.

However Daniel was able to beat both Ryazan and Mongol troops in His successor Yury of Moscow also seized Pereslavl-Zalessky. Toqta considered eliminating the special status of the Grand principality of Vladimir, and placing all the Rus' princes on the same level.

Toqta decided to personally visit northern Rus' to settle the conflict between the princes, but he fell ill and died while crossing the Volga in After Öz Beg Khan assumed the throne in , he adopted Islam as the state religion.

He built a large mosque in the city of Solkhat in the Crimea in and proscribed Buddhism and Shamanism among the Mongols in the Golden Horde.

By , Öz Beg had successfully Islamicized the Horde and killed Jochid princes and Buddhist lamas who opposed his religious policy.

When Ibn Battuta visited Sarai in , he found it to be a large and beautiful city with vast streets and fine markets where Mongols, Alans, Kypchaks, Circassians, Rus', and Greeks each had their own quarters.

Merchants had a special walled section of the city all to themselves. Öz Beg continued the alliance with the Mamluks begun by Berke and his predecessors.

He kept a friendly relationship with the Mamluk Sultan and his shadow Caliph in Cairo. Al-Nasir Muhammad claimed that she had died and showed his ambassadors a fake legal document as proof, although Tulunbay still lived and would only pass away in In Öz Beg reopened friendly relations with the Yuan dynasty and began to send tributes thereafter.

Öz Beg, whose total army exceeded ,, repeatedly raided Thrace in aid of Bulgaria's war against Byzantium and Serbia beginning in Friendly relations were established with the Byzantine Empire for a brief period after Öz Beg married Andronikos III Palaiologos 's illegitimate daughter, who came to be known as Bayalun.

In , she was given permission to visit her father in Constantinople and never returned, apparently fearing her forced conversion to Islam.

In , Öz Beg sent 15, troops to Serbia in but was defeated. While Mikhail was asserting his authority, his rival Yury of Moscow ingratiated himself with Öz Beg so that he appointed him chief of the Rus' princes and gave him his sister, Konchak, in marriage.

After he ravaged the villages of Tver , Yury was defeated by Mikhail in December , and his new wife and the Mongol general, Kawgady, were captured.

While she stayed in Tver, Konchak, who converted to Christianity and adopted the name Agatha, died. Mikhail's rivals suggested to Öz Beg that he had poisoned the Khan's sister and revolted against his rule.

Mikhail was summoned to Sarai and executed on November 22, Yuri's brother Ivan accompanied the Mongol general Akhmyl in suppressing a revolt by Rostov in In , Mikhail's son, Dmitry , seeking revenge for his father's murder, went to Sarai and persuaded the Khan that Yury had appropriated a large portion of the tribute due to the Horde.

Yury was summoned to the Horde for a trial, but he was killed by Dmitry before any formal investigation. Eight months later, Dmitry was also executed by the Horde for his crime.

The title of grand duke went to Aleksandr Mikhailovich. They took up residence at Aleksander 's palace. Rumors spread that Shevkal wanted to occupy the throne for himself and introduce Islam to the city.

When, on 15 August , the Mongols tried to take a horse from a deacon named Dyudko, he cried for help and a mob killed the Mongols.

Shevkal and his remaining guards were burnt alive. Ivan I Kalita was granted the title of grand prince and given the right to collect taxes from other Rus' potentates.

Öz Beg also sent Ivan at the head of an army of 50, soldiers to punish Tver. Aleksander was shown mercy in , however, when Moscow requested that he and his son Feoder be quartered in Sarai by orders of the Khan on October 29, In Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania gained control of Kiev and installed his brother Fedor as prince, but the principality's tribute to the Khan continued.

On a campaign a few years later, the Lithuanians under Fedor included the Khan's baskak in their entourage. A decree, issued probably by Mengu-Timur, allowing the Franciscans to proselytize, was renewed by Öz Beg in Öz Beg allowed the Christian Genoese to settle in Crimea after his accession, but the Mongols sacked their outpost Sudak in when the Genoese clashed with the Turks.

Öz Beg signed a new trade treaty with the Genoese in and allowed them to rebuild the walls of Caffa. In he allowed the Venetians to establish a colony at Tanais on the Don.

In , when Ibn Battuta visited Sudak, he found the population to be predominantly Turkish. Öz Beg's eldest son Tini Beg reigned briefly from before his younger brother, Jani Beg — , came to power.

In , Jani Beg tried to seize Caffa from the Genoese but failed. In , he signed a commercial treaty with Venice.

The slave trade flourished due to strengthening ties with the Mamluk Sultanate. Growth of wealth and increasing demand for products typically produce population growth, and so it was with Sarai.

Housing in the region increased, which transformed the capital into the center of a large Muslim Sultanate. The Black Death of the s was a major factor contributing to the economic downfall of the Golden Horde.

It struck the Crimea in and killed over 85, people. In his army marched against Poland with auxiliaries from Galicia—Volhynia, as Volhynia was part of Lithuania.

In , however, Galicia—Volhynia was occupied by a Polish-Hungarian force, and the Kingdom of Galicia—Volhynia was finally conquered and incorporated into Poland.

This act put an end to the relationship of vassalage between the Galicia—Volhynia Rus' and the Golden Horde. The seven Mongol princes were sent by Jani Beg to assist Poland.

Jani Beg asserted Jochid dominance over the Chagatai Khanate and conquered Tabriz , ending Chobanid rule there in After accepting the surrender of the Jalayirids , Jani Beg boasted that three uluses of the Mongol Empire were under his control.

Berdi Beg was killed in a coup by his brother Qulpa in Qulpa's two sons were Christians and bore the Russian names , Michael and Ivan, which outraged the Muslim populace of the Golden Horde.

In , Qulpa's brother Nawruz Beg revolted against the khan and killed him and his sons. In , a descendant of Shiban 5th son of Jochi , was invited by some grandees to seize the throne.

Khidr rebelled against Nawruz, whose own lieutenant betrayed him and handed him over to be executed. Khidr was slain by his own son, Timur Khwaja, in the same year.

Timur Khwaja reigned for only five weeks before descendants of Öz Beg Khan seized power. Abdullah died in and Muhammad Bolaq was enthroned as puppet khan by Mamai.

Muscovite troops impinged on the Bulgar territory of Arab-Shah, the son of Bulat Temir, who caught them off guard and defeated them on the banks of the Pyana River.

However Arab-Shah was unable to take advantage of the situation because of the advance of another Mongol general from the east.

Mamai hired Genoese , Circassian , and Alan mercenaries for another attack on Moscow in In the ensuing battle, Mongol forces once again lost at the Battle of Kulikovo.

By , Urus Khan had set up court in Sighnaq. He was named Urus, which means Russian in Turkish language , because his mother was apparently a Rus' princess.

In , Urus marched west and occupied Sarai. His nephew and lieutenant Tokhtamysh deserted him and went to Timur for assistance. Tokhtamysh attacked Urus, killing his son Kutlug-Buka, but lost the battle and fled to Samarkand.

Soon after, another general Edigu deserted Urus and went over to Timur. Timur personally attacked Urus in but the campaign ended indecisively.

Urus died the next year and was succeeded by his son, Timur-Melik, who immediately lost Sighnaq to Tokhtamysh.

In , Tokhtamysh conquered Sarai. By the s, the Shaybanids and Qashan attempted to break free of the Khan's power.

Tokhtamysh attacked Mamai, who had recently suffered a loss against Muscovy, and defeated him in , thus briefly reestablishing the Golden Horde as a dominant regional power.

Mamai fled to the Genoese who killed him soon after. Tokhtamysh sent an envoy to the Rus' states to resume their tributary status, but the envoy only made it as far as Nizhny Novgorod before he was stopped.

Tokhtamysh immediately seized all the boats on the Volga to ferry his army across and commenced the Siege of Moscow , which fell after three days under a false truce.

The next year most of the Rus' princes once again made obeisance to the khan and received patents from him. Elated by his success, Tokhtamysh invaded Azerbaijan in and seized Tabriz.

He ordered money with his name on it coined in Khwarezm and sent envoys to Egypt to seek an alliance. In , Timur sent an army into Azerbaijan and fought indecisively with the forces of the Golden Horde.

Tokhtamysh invaded Transoxania and reached as far as Bukhara , but failed to take the city, and had to turn back. Timur retaliated by invading Khwarezm and destroyed Urgench.

The battle ended indecisively. In , Timur gathered an army , strong and defeated Tokhtamysh at the Battle of the Kondurcha River.

Tokhtamysh returned in , ravaging the region of Shirvan. In , Timur annihilated Tokhtamysh's army again at the Battle of the Terek River , destroyed his capital, looted the Crimean trade centers, and deported the most skillful craftsmen to his own capital in Samarkand.

Timur's forces reached as far north as Ryazan before turning back. Tokhtamysh died in obscurity in Tyumen around Temür Qutlugh died in and his cousin Shadi Beg was elected khan with Edigu's approval.

After defeating Vytautas, Edigu concentrated on strengthening the Golden Horde. He forbade selling Golden Horde subjects as slaves abroad.

Later on the slave trade was resumed, but only Circassians were allowed to be sold. As a result most of the Mamluk recruits in the 15th century were of Circassian origin.

Timur died in and Edigu took advantage to seize Khwarezm a year later. From to , Edigu gradually regained the eastern Rus' tributaries, with the exception of Moscow, which he failed to take in a siege but ravaged the surrounding area.

Smolensk was also lost to Lithuania. Shadi Beg rebelled against Edigu but was defeated and fled to Astrakhan. Temur Khan turned against Edigu and forced him to flee to Khwarezm in Temur himself was ousted the next year by Jalal al-Din, who returned from Lithuania and briefly took the throne.

In , Shah Rukh of the Timurids conquered Khwarezm. Edigu fled to the Crimea where he launched raids on Kiev and tried to forge an alliance with Lithuania to win back the horde.

Edigu died in in a skirmish with one of Tokhtamysh's sons. After his death in , the khanate was ruled by the Uzbek khan Abu'l-Khayr Khan.

When he died in , the khanate split in two, with the Shaybanid Ibak Khan situated in Chimgi-Tura, and the Taibugid Muhammad at the fortress of Sibir, from which the khanate derives its name.

After , the Golden Horde functionally ceased to exist. Ulugh Muhammad was officially Khan of the Golden Horde but his authority was limited to the lower banks of the Volga where Tokhtamysh's other son Kepek also reigned.

The political situation in the Golden Horde did not stabilize. In , the grandson of Urus Khan , Barak Khan , attacked the reigning khans in the west.

Within two years, Ulugh, Kepek, and another claimant Dawlat Berdi , were defeated. Ulugh Muhammad fled to Lithuania, Kepek tried to raid Odoyev and Ryazan but failed to establish himself in those regions, and Dawlat took advantage of the situation to seize Crimea.

Barak defeated an invasion by Ulugh Beg in but was assassinated the next year. Ulugh Muhammad ousted Dawlat Berdi from Crimea.

In , Ulugh Muhammad contributed troops to Vytautas' war against Pskov. Despite the Golden Horde's extremely reduced status, both Yury of Zvenigorod and Vasily Kosoy still visited Ulugh Muhammad's court in to request a grand ducal patent.

Ulugh Muhammad became master of Belev. Ulugh Muhammad continued to exert influence on Muscovy, occupying Gorodets in Vasily II even wanted him to issue him a patent for the throne, but Ulugh Muhammad attacked him instead at Murom in Despite his victory, Ulugh Muhammad's situation was pressed.

The Golden Horde was no more, he had barely 10, soldiers, and thus could not press the advantage against Moscow. A few months later he released Vasily II for a ransom of 25, rubles.

Unfortunately, Ulugh Muhammad was murdered by his son, Mäxmüd of Kazan , who fled to the middle Volga region and founded the Khanate of Kazan in After Abu'l-Khayr Khan died in , they assumed leadership over most of his followers, and became the Kazakh Khanate.

In , the khan Küchük Muhammad ousted Sayid Ahmad. He attacked Ryazan and suffered a major defeat against the forces of Vasily II.

Sayid Ahmad continued to raid Muscovy and in made a direct attack on Moscow. However he was defeated by Muscovy's ally Qasim Khan.

In , Sayid Ahmad tried to take Moscow again and failed. Küchük Muhammad was succeeded by his son Mahmud bin Küchük in , from which point on the Golden Horde came to be known as the Great Horde.

Mahmud was succeeded by his brother Ahmed Khan bin Küchük in In the summer of , Ahmed organized an attack against Moldavia , the Kingdom of Poland , and Lithuania.

In , Ahmed organized a military campaign against Moscow, resulting in a face off between two opposing armies known as the Great Stand on the Ugra River.

Ahmed judged the conditions unfavorable and retreated. This incident formally ended the "Tatar Yoke" over Rus' lands.

Ahmed's sons were unable to maintain the Great Horde. They attacked the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania which possessed much of the Ukraine at the time in — and reached as far as Lublin in eastern Poland before being decisively beaten at Zaslavl.

The Crimean Khanate , which had become a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in , subjugated what remained of the Great Horde, sacking Sarai in After seeking refuge in Lithuania, Sheikh Ahmed , last Khan of the Horde, died in prison in Kaunas some time after According to other sources, he was released from the Lithuanian prison in Records of Golden Horde existence reach however as far as end of 18th century and it was mentioned in works of Russian publisher Nikolay Novikov in his work of "Ancient Russian Hydrography".

After , Mahmud bin Küchük 's descendants continued to rule in Astrakhan as the khans of the Astrakhan Khanate.

The Crimean Tatars wreaked havoc in southern Russia, Ukraine and even Poland in the course of the 16th and early 17th centuries see Crimean—Nogai raids into East Slavic lands , but they were not able to defeat Russia or take Moscow.

Under Ottoman protection, the Khanate of Crimea continued its precarious existence until Catherine the Great annexed it on April 8, It was by far the longest-lived of the successor states to the Golden Horde.

The objective of the Golden Horde in conquered lands revolved around obtaining recruits for the army and exacting tax payments from its subjects.

In most cases the Golden Horde did not implement direct control over the people they conquered. While the Mongols generally did not directly administer the Eastern European lands they conquered, in the cases of the Principality of Pereyaslavl , Principality of Kiev , and Podolia , they removed the native administration altogether and replaced it with their own direct control.

The Kingdom of Galicia—Volhynia , Principality of Smolensk , Principality of Chernigov , and Principality of Novgorod-Seversk retained their princes but also had to contend with Mongol agents who enforced recruitment and tax collection.

The Novgorod Republic was exempt from the presence of Mongol agents after but still had to pay taxes. The Mongols took censuses of Rus' lands in , , , , , and No further censuses were taken after that.

Some places such as the town of Tula became the personal property of individual Mongols such as the Khatun Taidula, the mother of Jani Beg.

The Rus' princes had to receive a patent for his throne from the khan, who then sent an envoy to install the prince on his throne. From the time of Öz Beg Khan on, a commissioner was appointed by the khan to reside at each of the Rus' principalities' capitals.

Machen Sie diese Seite attraktiver. Die Mongolen zeigten keine Milde: Nur etwa der rund Captain Buzz Lightyear – Star Command konnte sich erfolgreich gegen Einmischungsversuche Witolds und Toktamischs wehren; unter anderem blieb er in der Schlacht an der Worskla siegreich. Dies war auch Black Sails Online Beginn einer schrittweisen Islamisierung der Goldenen Horde. Moskau zog Nutzen aus der Situation, indem es mehr Gegend eingliederte. Beanspruchen Sie Ihren Eintrag kostenlos, um z. Eroberungsfeldzug gen Westen Nach dem Tod des Mongolenherrschers verlor sich sein Reich zunächst in erbitterten Thronstreitigkeiten — bis sich sein dritter Sohn durchsetzen konnte. Öz Beg allowed the Christian Genoese to settle in Crimea after his accession, but the Mongols sacked their outpost Sudak in when the Genoese clashed with the Turks. The Rus' princes had to receive a patent for his throne from the khan, who then sent an envoy to install the prince on his throne. Muscovite troops impinged on the Bulgar territory of Arab-Shah, the son of Bulat Temir, who caught them off guard and defeated them on the banks of the Pyana River. Jodhaa Akbar Golden Horde's name "Altan Ordu," may have come from the yellow tents used by the rulers, but nobody is sure about the derivation. The loss of so many producers and taxpayers hit Doctors Diary Golden Horde Happy New Year Herzensdiebe. Inthe second Great Khan, Ogedei Khan, suddenly Sabia Und Leonard Although Batu excused himself by saying he was suffering from old age and illness, it seems that he did not support the election of Güyük Khan.

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